Some beate their Bucklers, some their emptie caskes; For this, of Cibeles Priests, the labour askes The mysteri's conceald: yes still remaines An imitation of those auntient Straines. Her priests were called Curetes, and Coribantes; as also Idaei Dactili, who like mad-men wagging their heads and playing on Cimbals ran about the streets, prouoking others to doe the like: They came from Ida in Phrygia into Creete, in which Island they cald a hill by the name of Ida.
Further to expresse the nature of the earth, many things haue from antiquitie beene remembred touching her: for Rhea signifies the force or strength of the earth who passeth and shifteth, piercing into the generation of things. SOme report her to be borne of the Nymphe Dione, daughter to Oceanus and Thetis: Others, that she was borne of the foame or froath of the Sea. She is the goddesse of Loue, the wife of Vulcan, the sweet heart of Mars, the mother of Cupid and the Graces; She goes armed with Torches, and bound about with a marriage girdle.
The like witnesseth Horace, Statius, Siluius, and others.
The places to her most sacred, were Amathus, an Isle in the Sea Aegeum, of which she tooke the name of Amathusa or Amathusis. Pliny reports that Praxitiles was nobilitated for his grauing of Marble, but especially for the Statue of Gnidian. Of Erix a mountaine in Sicilia she was called Erecina: as Horrac. This Tale is knowne to all and spoken still, Of Mars and Venus tooke by Vulcans skill: The god of warre doth in his browe discouer, No more a frowning souldier, but a louer.
To his demands what could the Queene oppose? Cruell, or hard? How oft the wanton would deride his trade!
Polt-foot; and hard-hand, blacke with Cole-dust made. He's pleas'd to see her imitate his pace: What ere she doth, her beauty seemes to grace. At first their meetings they conceal'd with shame, None to their bashfull sinnes could scarce giue name. The tell-tale Sunne who can deceiue his sight? Sees, and to Vulcane doth of all giue light. Oh Sunne, what bad example hast thou lent?
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Aske her a bribe; she hath to giue content, So thou wilt secret be. Vulcane downe sits, And his obscure wyres to the place he fits: The worke so fine, that it beguiles the eye, About their bed, he plac't them, lowe, and hye. He makes as if to Lemnos he would scoure, The louers keepe appointment iust at th'houre; And catcht together in his wierie snare, Naked and fast bound Mars and Venus are. He calls the gods to witnesse, they are spide; Soft hearted Venus scarce her teares can hide: Their hands to vaile their cheekes they cannot git, Or shodow that which to behold's vnfit.
Their lusts it did encourage, not asswage; And thou hast since repenced of thy rage. Of her loue to Adonis, the incestuous issue of Mirrha and her father Cyniras; how he was slaine of the boare, and how his blood was turned into a purple flower by the power of the goddesse: her doating vpon Anchises, the father of Aeneas; it might appeare superfluous to insist vpon.
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Therefore to auoide all prolixitie, I will briefly come to the mysteries included. The places celebrated to her deitie, were Ithinas a hill neere to Athens, where shee had a Temple errected; the mountaine Pireas, in Attica; in Aracinthus, a place in Aetolia, from which as Statius writes she was called Aracinthia. But Athens was her place of most honour, which citie she is sayd to haue built: From thence she hath the name of Athnaea, Attica, Cecropia, and Mosopia: Horace Carm.
The great citie called Alcomeneum, scituate in Boetia, hath likewise by the testament of the first founder submitted it selfe to her patronage. Of Scira, a prophet of Elusina, shee was called Sciras. There were certaine wreastling contentions, which Theseus in Athens first instituted to this goddesse, as Plutarch hath deliuered. In her sacrifices it was their custome to offer a Goat, because as Plinie hath left recorded, The biting of the goat is preiudiciall to the Oliue tree, whose fruit Minerua best loueth; the verie licking of the rinde with their tongues makes it barren.
Shee slew the beast Alcida, a monster that from his mouth and nosthrils breathed fire. Aelianus writes, that when Alexander brought his armie against Thebes amongst manie other prodigies that the image of Minerua, sirnamed Atalcomineides was burnt by a voluntarie flame, no fire being neere it.
At Assessum she had two Temples: from that place she was called Minerua Assessia. From other places where shee was worshipt, she tooke the name of Pallenides and Pedasia: Alea from her temple amongst the Tegeates. Tutelaris she was called by the inhabitants of Chios, and honoured as an Oracle amongst the Aegyptians; she had only a porch amongst the Seians. In some places her statues were couered with gold, in others they were of plaine stone. Herodotus writeth that when Xerxes transported his armie into Greece, passing by Troy and being perusing the antiquities thereof; vpon his departure thence, at the altar of Minerua, hee sacrificed a thousand oxen in one day.
Manie things are fabled of her by Poets, as of her contention in weauing, with Arachne, which I purposely refer to her storie as it falls in course.
In a Hymne vpon Pallas hee is thus read: Hanc de patre ferunt, sine matris saedere natam; Prouida consilia, quod nescit curia matrum. Of father therefore, without mother borne; Because learn'd courts, the womens counsell scorne. They haue it by tradition, that Minerua was the daughter of Neptune and the Fenne before named, and being reproued by her father, shee tooke it in such scorne, that shee vtterly reiected him and gaue her selfe to Iupiter, who adopted her his daughter. This is that winged horse Pegasus, by which Perseus subdued so manie monsters.
Such Greekes as from reuenging Hellens rape Were home returnd, Nestor amongst the rest, And Menelaus; vrging him to inquire Of them, who in the warres at Troy did best? And whose heroick acts did most aspire, But of Vlysses, chiefely to learne newes, What course he takes, or what attempt pursues.
Juvenal Vocabulary-Satire 4 Flashcards
Againe in the second booke. Which I will conclude with the foure and twentieth argument of Homers Odisse, and the last booke. Pallas hath beene often inuocated by the Poets, but amongst infinite I will onelie instance one, and that for the elegancie. The conditions were accepted; and he presentlie to his harpe sung this extemperoll dittie, called Caminus, or Fornax. In the heauen shee is called Luna, the Moone; in the Earth, Diana; in Hell or amongst the Infernalls, Proserpina: of which three-fold power, she is called Triformis, and Triula.
The places sacred to her, were as Valerius Flaccus affirms Parthenius, a flood of Paphlagonia. She with her brother Apollo, was borne in Cinthus, a mountaine hanging ouer Delos; of whom Statius saith, they are both called Cinthij.
Thirteen Satires of Juvenal, Volume 1: With a Commentary (Cambridge Library Collection - Classics)
In Ephesus, a cittie of Ionia, or Lydia, she had a magnificent Temple numbered amongst the seauen wonders of the world. In Bauron, a cittie of Attica, she was likewise honoured. Not Delia to our dogges is better knowne. Horace reports her to haue two mountaines in Italie dedicated to her deitie, Auentinus and Algidus. In her sacrifices, a Hart was still offered at her Altar; and dogges or hounds, as Ouid writes: Exta canum Triuia vidi mactare Sabaeos: Et quicunque tuas accolit Haeme Nyues.
The Sabaeans and the Thessalians inhabiting the snowie mountaine Haemus, vsed dogges in their oblations. It is reported of one Herostratus, a wicked and debosht fellow, who finding in himselfe nothing good to preserue his memorie, and willing that his name should liue to posteritie, set this Temple on fire, for no other purpose, but that hee would bee talkt on: the Ephesians vnderstanding this his malicious ambition, they made it death once to name him. It being demanded of one of Dianaes priests, Why Diana being a goddesse, would suffer her Temple to be vtterlie destroyed?
It was answered againe, That it was done vnawares to the goddesse, for she was that night at the labour of Olimpias, and busied about bringing Alexander into the world. Notwithstanding this great ruine, the people of Ephesus caused it to bee re-erected, and made both richer and more beautifull than before: of which worke Dinocrates an Architectour of Macedonia was chiefe.
The Poets faine that she is continuallie exercised in hunting: for no other reason but to instruct and incourage all such as prophesse virginitie to shunne sloath and idlenes: so Ouid, Otia si tollas periere cupidinis arcus. Take sloath away, aud Cupids bow vnbends: His brands extinguish, and his false fire spends. Diana and Phoebus, were therefore said to be the children of Latona, because in that, the ancient Poets would signifie the beginning of the world: for when the matter whereof it was made, was a meere confused Masse, and without shape, because all things were obscure and hid: that darknes is signified in Latona; and whereas they make Iupiter their Father, it imports as much as if they should fetch Iupiter out of this darknes, called the Sun and the Moone.
More plainelie, the Spirit of the Lord said, Let there be light; of which Light, Apollo and Diana, the one by day, and the other by night, are the greatest: by this inferring, that the generation of the world began first from Light. This done, the doores are againe set open, and the rest, one by one forc't in, and so in order by the same women slayne and offered. In a booke of the scituation of Sicilie, composed by Cl.
This is that most ancient Ceres whom not Sicilia onely, but all other nations whatsoeuer celebrated. Most certaine it is, that she was Queene of the Sicilians, and gaue them lawes, taught them the vse of tillage and husbandrie; and that her daughter Libera was transported thence by Orcus, or Dis, king of the Molossians. Hast thou seene the kingdomes of Sicilian Proserpine?